Discovered in 1962, it was once hailed as the third-generation chemical sterilant after formaldehyde and ethylene oxide and is widely used in the disinfection and sterilization of medical instruments and precision instruments.
Advantages: Glutaraldehyde is cheap as a water sanitizer for aquaculture and is suitable for a variety of materials;
Disadvantages: Inhalation toxicity, damage to the respiratory system; allergy, obvious mucosal toxicity and eye, skin irritation, contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, headache, sore throat and asthma, induced colitis outbreak; mutagenic, teratogenic reaction, pollute the environment, etc.
In recent years, it has been found to have carcinogenic effects on humans and animals, and its application has been greatly limited. Currently, it is mainly used for disinfection or sterilization of dialyzers, and disinfection of the local environment of pathogenic microorganism laboratories.
Both formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde are used as aquaculture disinfectant, formaldehyde is used for Saprolegnia, and glutaraldehyde is used more in aquaculture. All belong to environmental pollution and toxic biological products.
Inorganic chlorine: sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder essence), chlorinated trisodium phosphate.
Organochlorines: sodium dichloroisocyanurate (chloroquine), trichloroisocyanuric acid (strong chloroquine), chloramines.
Advantages: As an aquarium disinfectant, chlorine-containing disinfectant has better bactericidal effect, wide range of use, cheaper price, and convenient use.
Disadvantages: It is a moderately toxic disinfectant, and in the process of disinfection, it reacts with organic substances to generate nearly 10 carcinogens with strong "three effects". The product is unstable, corrodes equipment, is sensitizing to the skin, has chlorine odor, and is not easy to Flush, resistant.
Among the hydantoin (hydantoin) compounds, dibromohydantoin, bromochlorohydantoin, and dichlorohydantoin have good disinfection effects, and they are all efficient and broad-spectrum disinfectants. (Bromochlorohydantoin and dichlorohydantoin can cause chlorine hazards.)
Advantages: high efficiency, broad spectrum, wide application range, small residue, not affected by ammonia nitrogen and pH value.
The bromine-releasing reaction of the dibromodimethylhydantoin disinfectant in aquaculture occurs quickly, resulting in the rapid formation of large quantities of bactericidal hypobromous acid, while other halogenated hydantoins, such as dichlorohydantoin or bromochlorohydantoin, Because the chlorine-releasing reaction is very slow, and the time for the formation of the disinfectant sterilization peak in water is relatively delayed, dibromohydantoin has higher efficiency than other halogenated hydantoins under conditions that require relatively rapid sterilization.
Disadvantages: General information says that there is no residual poison after disinfection, but our company believes that its by-products include methyl bromide, which volatilizes at 4.6 degrees Celsius, so it should be used with care.
Iodophor sustained-release type is an amorphous polymer with a surfactant (polyethylene, pyrrolidone, etc.) as a carrier. There are three types of nonionic, cationic, and anionic types. Among them, nonionic iodophor is the most widely used, The safest iodine, mainly povidone-iodine and polyol ether iodine, other compound iodine preparations.
Advantages: Although iodophor is listed as a medium-effect aquaculture animal facility disinfectant, its bactericidal spectrum is broader than other medium-effect disinfectants. It can effectively kill bacterial propagules, fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, viruses, spirochetes, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis.
Disadvantages: iodophor and povidone-iodine are also commonly used in aquaculture disinfection, but they are medium-effective disinfectants, which are greatly affected by pH value and organic matter, especially in seawater, and have a poor killing effect on some bacteria and viruses.