With the rapid development of the poultry industry, various types of chicken farms (state-owned, collective, individual, large, medium and small) are constantly increasing. Due to the circulation of commodities, frequent exchanges between regions and countries, various diseases The route of transmission is also becoming more and more complex.
Therefore, the use of disinfectants to disinfect chicken farms, chicken houses and the environment is an important part of sanitation and epidemic prevention work. For this reason, various disinfectants have appeared in the market in recent years, and people want to buy the ideal intervention farm animal care disinfectant.
The ideal chemical disinfectant must have the following conditions: wide bactericidal spectrum; good bactericidal performance, which can kill microorganisms at low concentrations; rapid bactericidal effect, non-toxic to humans, livestock and poultry; stable in nature, no odor, easy to dissolve In water, can be used at low temperature.
No damage to metal, wood, plastic products, etc., easy to remove residual drugs after disinfection; non-flammable and explosive, non-hazardous to use; not easily affected by organic matter, acid, alkali and other physical and chemical factors; low price and easy to buy; easy to use transportation.
In fact, there are very few completely ideal poultry farm disinfectants, and it is impossible for the same disinfectant to be suitable for all kinds of microorganisms and all items.
Therefore, in veterinary disinfection, in order to achieve the best disinfection effect, it is necessary to select a suitable veterinary disinfectant cleaner according to the purpose of disinfection, the characteristics of the disinfection object, the type of pathogens and the characteristics of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Formaldehyde is the earliest disinfectant used in aldehyde compounds, and it has a history of about 100 years. 38% ~ 40% formaldehyde solution with strong irritating odor.
Formaldehyde solution has a strong bactericidal effect, and has a killing effect on bacteria, spores, propagules, viruses and fungi.
0.5% -2.5% formaldehyde poultry disinfectant powder can kill all bacteria, spores and viruses within 6-24 hours, and can be used for disinfection of poultry houses, utensils and excrement. It is generally made into a solution for spraying and washing, and can also be fumigated with formaldehyde vapor.
2% formaldehyde solution is used for immersion and disinfection of instruments, 5% ~ 10% formaldehyde solution can be used for fixing specimens and preserving data, and 3% ~ 5% formaldehyde solution is used for spraying and detoxifying the floor, walls, cages, etc. of chicken houses.
Formaldehyde fumigation is used for chicken coops, warehouses, hatching rooms, etc. In general, 28 ml/m3 of formaldehyde and 14 g/m3 of potassium permanganate are used.
Because the potassium permanganate and the formaldehyde solution meet to generate high heat, the formaldehyde evaporates, so as to achieve the purpose of disinfection. If the pollution degree of the chicken house is serious, the dosage of formaldehyde and potassium permanganate can be increased, but the ratio of the two is still 2:1.
Fumigation and disinfection can also be performed by heating and evaporating with formaldehyde and the same amount of water. Poultry farm disinfectant disinfection time is 12 to 24 hours. During fumigation and disinfection, the chicken coop or container must be sealed to prevent air leakage. Once fumigation starts, personnel should be evacuated immediately.
After disinfection, open doors and windows or containers, and ventilate for 3 to 4 days to allow the formaldehyde gas in it to escape. When using formaldehyde vapor for fumigation and disinfection, the volume of the porcelain basin containing the medicine should not be less than 4 times the volume of the formaldehyde solution, so as to avoid overflow of the formaldehyde solution when it boils.
The bactericidal power of formaldehyde vapor is related to temperature and humidity. The temperature should not be lower than 15C during disinfection. The higher the humidity, the stronger the bactericidal power.
Formaldehyde vapor disinfectant for poultry farms such as the duck disinfectant can also be used to sterilize eggshells, but it cannot sterilize the bacteria in the eggs (such as eggs produced by pullorum-carrying hens, which are often infected with bacteria).
In order to kill the typhoid bacillus contaminated on the eggshell, the eggs can be placed on a shelf and fumigated in a separate room for 20 to 30 minutes before hatching.
The sterilized eggs can no longer be stored, and should be hatched immediately. The newly hatched eggs can also be fumigated with formaldehyde vapor in the incubator (within 6 hours), and they should be ventilated immediately after disinfection.
Glutaraldehyde is an efficient disinfectant with the characteristics of rapid action, low irritation, low toxicity and safety. However, due to its high price, glutaraldehyde poultry farm disinfectant is not widely used in the veterinary field.